3 the elasticity and hardness of a metal object; its ability to absorb considerable energy before cracking [syn: temper]
4 impressive difficulty [syn: formidability]
Toughness, in materials science and metallurgy, is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. It is defined as the amount of energy per volume that a material can absorb before rupturing.
Mathematical definitionToughness can be found by taking the area (i.e., by taking the integral) underneath the stress-strain curve. The explicit mathematical description is:
- \frac \mbox \mbox = \int_^ \sigma\, d\epsilon
- \epsilon is strain
- \epsilon_f is the strain upon failure
- \sigma is stress
Another definition is the ability to absorb mechanical (or kinetic) energy up to failure.
Toughness testsTests can be done by using a pendulum and some basic physics to measure how much energy it will hold when released from a particular height. By having a sample at the bottom of its swing a measure of toughness can be found, as in the Charpy and Izod impact tests.
Unit of toughnessToughness is measured in units of joules per cubic metre (J/m³) in the SI system and inch-pound-force per cubic inch (in·lbf/in³) in US customary units.
toughness in German: Zähigkeit
toughness in Spanish: Tenacidad
toughness in Galician: Tenacidade
toughness in Italian: Tenacità
toughness in Japanese: 靭性
toughness in Portuguese: Tenacidade
toughness in Swedish: Seghet
toughness in Chinese: 韌性
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