1 of or relating to the thyroid gland; "thyroid deficiency"; "thyroidal uptake" [syn: thyroidal]
2 suggestive of a thyroid disorder; "thyroid personality" n : located near the base of the neck [syn: thyroid gland]
The thyroid gland
- Finnish: kilpirauhanen
The thyroid cartilage
A preparation obtained from the thyroid gland
The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (also known as the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.
The thyroid participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Iodine is an essential component of both T3 and T4. The thyroid also produces the hormone calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.
The thyroid is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary. The gland gets its name from the Greek word for "shield", after the shape of the related thyroid cartilage. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are the most common problems of the thyroid gland.
AnatomyThe thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ and is composed of two cone-like lobes or wings: lobus dexter (right lobe) and lobus sinister (left lobe), connected with the isthmus. The organ is situated on the anterior side of the neck, lying against and around the larynx and trachea, reaching posteriorly the oesophagus and carotid sheath. It starts cranially at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage (just below the laryngeal prominence or Adam's apple) and extends inferiorly to the fourth to sixth tracheal ring. It is difficult to demarcate the gland's upper and lower border with vertebral levels as it moves position in relation to these during swallowing.
The thyroid gland is covered by a fibrous sheath, the capsula glandulae thyroidea, composed of an internal and external layer. The external layer is anteriorly continuous with the lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis and posteriorolaterally continuous with the carotid sheath. The gland is covered anteriorly with infrahyoid muscles and laterally with the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Posteriorly, the gland is fixed to the cricoid and tracheal cartilage and cricopharyngeus muscle by a thickening of the fascia to form the posterior suspensory ligament of Berry. In variable extent, Zuckerkandl's tubercle, a pyramidal extension of the thyroid lobe, is present at the most posterior side of the lobe. In this region the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the inferior thyroid artery pass next to or in the ligament and tubercle. Between the two layers of the capsule and on the posterior side of the lobes there are on each side two parathyroid glands.
The thyroid isthmus is variable in presence and size, and can encompass a cranially extending pyramid lobe (lobus pyramidalis or processus pyramidalis), remnant of the thyroglossal duct. The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands, weighing 2-3 grams in neonates and 18-60 grams in adults, and is increased in pregnancy.
The thyroid is supplied with arterial blood from the superior thyroid artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, and the inferior thyroid artery, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, and sometimes by the thyroid ima artery, branching directly from the aortic arch. The venous blood is drained via superior thyroid veins, draining in the internal jugular vein, and via inferior thyroid veins, draining via the plexus thyroideus impar in the left brachiocephalic vein. Lymphatic drainage passes frequently the lateral deep cervical lymph nodes and the pre- and parathracheal lymph nodes. The gland is supplied by sympathetic nerve input from the superior cervical ganglion and the cervicothoracic ganglion of the sympathetic trunk, and by parasympathetic nerve input from the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
Embryological developmentIn the fetus, at 3-4 weeks of gestation, the thyroid gland appears as an epithelial proliferation in the floor of the pharynx at the base of the tongue between the tuberculum impar and the copula linguae at a point latter indicated by the foramen cecum. Subsequently the thyroid descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a bilobed diverticulum through the thyroglossal duct. Over the next few weeks, it migrates to the base of the neck. During migration, the thyroid remains connected to the tongue by a narrow canal, the thyroglossal duct. Follicles of the thyroid begin to make colloid in the 11th week and thyroxine by the 18th week.
HistologyAt the microscopic level, there are three primary features of the thyroid:
PhysiologyThe primary function of the thyroid is production of the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. Up to 80% of the T4 is converted to T3 by peripheral organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen. T3 is about ten times more active than T4.
T3 and T4 production and actionThyroxine (T4) is synthesised by the follicular cells from free tyrosine and on the tyrosine residues of the protein called thyroglobulin (TG). Iodine is captured with the "iodine trap" by the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and linked to the 3' and 5' sites of the benzene ring of the tyrosine residues on TG, and on free tyrosine. Upon stimulation by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the follicular cells reabsorb TG and proteolytically cleave the iodinated tyrosines from TG, forming T4 and T3 (in T3, one iodine is absent compared to T4), and releasing them into the blood. Deiodinase enzymes convert T4 to T3. Thyroid hormone that is secreted from the gland is about 90% T4 and about 10% T3. A transport protein (OATP1C1) has been identified that seems to be important for T4 transport across the blood brain barrier. A second transport protein (MCT8) is important for T3 transport across brain cell membranes.
- Hypothyroidism (underactivity)
- Hyperthyroidism (overactivity)
Medication linked to thyroid disease includes amiodarone, lithium salts, some types of interferon and IL-2.
- The measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels is often used by doctors as a screening test. Elevated TSH levels can signify an inadequate hormone production, while suppressed levels can point at excessive unregulated production of hormone.
- If TSH is abnormal, decreased levels of thyroid hormones T4 and T3 may be present; these may be determined to confirm this.
- Autoantibodies may be detected in various disease states (anti-TG, anti-TPO, TSH receptor stimulating antibodies).
- There are two cancer markers for thyroid derived cancers. Thyroglobulin (TG) for well differentiated papillary or follcular adenocarcinoma, and the rare medullary thyroid cancer has calcitonin as the marker.
- Very infrequently, TBG and transthyretin levels may be abnormal; these are not routinely tested.
UltrasoundNodules of the thyroid may or may not be cancer. Medical ultrasonography can help determine their nature because some of the characteristics of benign and malignant nodules differ. The main characteristics of a thyroid nodule on high frequency thyroid ultrasound are as follows:
Ultrasonography is not always able to separate benign from malignant nodules with complete certainty. In suspicious cases, a tissue sample is often obtained by biopsy for microscopic examination.
Radioiodine scanning and uptakeThyroid scintigraphy, imaging of the thyroid with the aid of radioactive iodine, usually iodine-123 (123I), is performed in the nuclear medicine department of a hospital or clinic. Radioiodine collects in the thyroid gland before being excreted in the urine. While in the thyroid the radioactive emissions can be detected by a camera, producing a rough image of the shape (a radiodine scan) and tissue activity (a radioiodine uptake) of the thyroid gland.
A normal radioiodine scan shows even uptake and activity throughout the gland. Irregularity can reflect an abnormally shaped or abnormally located gland, or it can indicate that a portion of the gland is overactive or underactive, different from the rest. For example, a nodule that is overactive ("hot") to the point of suppressing the activity of the rest of the gland is usually a thyrotoxic adenoma, a surgically curable form of hyperthyroidism that is hardly ever malignant. In contrast, finding that a substantial section of the thyroid is inactive ("cold") may indicate an area of non-functioning tissue such as thyroid cancer.
The amount of radioactivity can be counted as an indicator of the metabolic activity of the gland. A normal quantitation of radioiodine uptake demonstrates that about 8 to 35% of the administered dose can be detected in the thyroid 24 hours later. Overactivity or underactivity of the gland as may occur with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is usually reflected in decreased or increased radioiodine uptake. Different patterns may occur with different causes of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
BiopsyA medical biopsy refers to the obtaining of a tissue sample for examination under the microscope or other testing, usually to distinguish cancer from noncancerous conditions. Thyroid tissue may be obtained for biopsy by fine needle aspiration or by surgery.
Needle aspiration has the advantage of being a brief, safe, outpatient procedure that is safer and less expensive than surgery and does not leave a visible scar. Needle biopsies became widely used in the 1980s, but it was recognized that accuracy of identification of cancer was good but not perfect. The accuracy of the diagnosis depends on obtaining tissue from all of the suspicious areas of an abnormal thyroid gland. The reliability of needle aspiration is increased when sampling can be guided by ultrasound, and over the last 15 years, this has become the preferred method for thyroid biopsy in North America.
Medical treatmentLevothyroxine is a stereoisomer of thyroxine which is degraded much slower and can be administered once daily in patients with hypothyroidism.
Graves' disease may be treated with the thioamide drugs propylthiouracil, carbimazole or methimazole, or rarely with Lugol's solution. Hyperthyroidism as well as thyroid tumors may be treated with radioactive iodine.
Percutaneous Ethanol Injections, PEI, for therapy of recurrent thyroid cysts, and metastatic thyroid cancer lymph nodes, as an alternative to the usual surgical method.
SurgeryThyroid surgery is performed for a variety of reasons. A nodule or lobe of the thyroid is sometimes removed for biopsy or for the presence of an autonomously functioning adenoma causing hyperthyroidism. A large majority of the thyroid may be removed, a subtotal thyroidectomy, to treat the hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease, or to remove a goitre that is unsightly or impinges on vital structures.
A complete thyroidectomy of the entire thyroid, including associated lymph nodes, is the preferred treatment for thyroid cancer. Removal of the bulk of the thyroid gland usually produces hypothyroidism, unless the person takes thyroid hormone replacement. Consequently, individuals who have undergone a total thyroidectomy are typically placed on thyroid hormone replacement for the remainder of their lives. Higher than normal doses are often administered to prevent recurrence.
If the thyroid gland must be removed surgically, care must be taken to avoid damage to adjacent structures, the parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Both are susceptible to accidental removal and/or injury during thyroid surgery. The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), a hormone needed to maintain adequate amounts of calcium in the blood. Removal results in hypoparathyroidism and a need for supplemental calcium and vitamin D each day. In the event the blood supply to any one of the parathyroid glands is endangered through surgery, the parathyroid gland(s) involved may be re-implanted in surrounding muscle tissue. The recurrent laryngeal nerves provide motor control for all external muscles of the larynx except for the cricothyroid muscle, also runs along the posterior thyroid. Accidental laceration of either of the two or both recurrent laryngeal nerves may cause paralysis of the vocal cords and their associated muscles, changing the voice quality.
Radioiodine therapyLarge goiters that cause symptoms, but do not harbor cancer, after evaluation, and biopsy of suspicious nodules can be treated by an alternative therapy with radioiodine. The iodine uptake can be high in countries with iodine deficiency, but low in iodine sufficient countries. The 1999 release of rhTSH thyrogen in the USA, can boost the uptakes to 50-60% allowing the therapy with iodine 131. The gland shrinks by 50-60%, but can cause hypothyroidism, and rarely pain syndrome cause by radiation thyroiditis that is short lived and treated by steroids.
HistoryThere are several findings that evidence a great interest for thyroid disorders just in the Medieval Medical School of Salerno (XII Century). Rogerius Salernitanus, the Salernitan surgeon and author of "Post mundi fabricam" (around 1180) was considered at that time the surgical text par excellence all over Europe. In the chapter "De bocio" of his magnus opum he describes several pharmacological and surgical cures, some of which nowadays are reappraised quite scientifically effective.
In modern times, the thyroid was first identified by the anatomist Thomas Wharton (whose name is also eponymised in Wharton's duct of the submandibular gland) in 1656.
Image:Illu endocrine system.jpg|Position of the Thyroid in Males and Females Image:illu08_thyroid.jpg| thyroid gland of sheep. X 160. Image:Thyoid-histology.jpg|Thyoid histology
- American Thyroid Association (Thyroid Information and professional organization)
- "Thyroid Gland"
- New Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer'' from the American Thyroid Association Taskforce.
- Thyroid Disease Manager (free online textbook)
- Thyroid Disease (Nuclear Medicine Information)
- The Thyroid Foundation of America (Education about Thyroid Disease)
thyroid in Arabic: غدة درقية
thyroid in Czech: Štítná žláza
thyroid in Danish: Skjoldbruskkirtel
thyroid in German: Schilddrüse
thyroid in Modern Greek (1453-): Θυρεοειδής Αδένας
thyroid in Spanish: Glándula tiroides
thyroid in Basque: Tiroide
thyroid in Finnish: Kilpirauhanen
thyroid in French: Thyroïde
thyroid in Hebrew: בלוטת התריס
thyroid in Croatian: Štitna žlijezda
thyroid in Italian: Tiroide
thyroid in Japanese: 甲状腺
thyroid in Latin: Glandula thyreoidea
thyroid in Latvian: Vairogdziedzeris
thyroid in Lithuanian: Skydliaukė
thyroid in Macedonian: Штитна жлезда
thyroid in Dutch: Schildklier
thyroid in Norwegian: Skjoldbruskkjertel
thyroid in Polish: Tarczyca
thyroid in Portuguese: Tiróide
thyroid in Russian: Щитовидная железа
thyroid in Slovak: Štítna žľaza
thyroid in Serbian: Штитаста жлезда
thyroid in Swedish: Sköldkörtel
thyroid in Thai: ต่อมไทรอยด์
thyroid in Turkish: Tiroid bezi
thyroid in Vietnamese: Giáp trạng
thyroid in Yiddish: טיירויד
thyroid in Chinese: 甲状腺
thyroid in Contenese: 甲狀腺