1 an active diversion requiring physical exertion and competition [syn: athletics]
2 the occupation of athletes who compete for pay
4 (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration [syn: mutant, mutation, variation]
5 (Maine colloquial) temporary summer resident of inland Maine
6 verbal wit (often at another's expense but not to be taken seriously); "he became a figure of fun" [syn: fun, play]
1 wear or display in an ostentatious or proud manner; "she was sporting a new hat" [syn: feature, boast]
2 play boisterously; "The children frolicked in the garden"; "the gamboling lambs in the meadows"; "The toddlers romped in the playroom" [syn: frolic, lark, rollick, skylark, disport, cavort, gambol, frisk, romp, run around, lark about]
- Rhymes: -ɔː(r)t
- suitable for use in athletic activities
- Jen has a new pair of sport shoes, and a new sports bra.
suitable for use in athletic activities
- Any athletic activity that uses physical skills, often competitive.
- A person who exhibits either good or bad sportsmanship.
- Jen may have won, but she was sure a poor sport; she laughed at the loser.
- The loser was a good sport, and congratulated Jen on her performance.
- Somebody who behaves or reacts in an admirable manner, a
- You're such a sport! You never get upset when we tease you.
- A toy; a plaything; an object of mockery.
- Gaming for money as in racing, hunting, fishing.
- In the context of "biology|botany|zoology|countable": A plant or an animal, or part of a plant or animal, which has some peculiarity not usually seen in the species; an abnormal variety or growth. The term encompasses both mutants and organisms with non-genetic developmental abnormalities such as birth defects.
- A sportsman; a gambler, one who consorts with less than reputable people, including prostitutes.
- In the context of "obsolete|uncountable": An amorous dalliance.
- Charlie and Lisa enjoyed a bit of sport after their hike.
- air sport
- blood sport
- combat sport
- contact sport
- cue sport
- extreme sport
- flying sport
- good sport
- individual sport
- mind sport
- poor sport
- professional sport
- spectator sport
- sport jacket
- sport stacking
- sport utility vehicle
- team sport
- wheelchair sport
- winter sport
any athletic activity that uses physical skills
- Chinese: 運動, 运动 (yùndòng)
- Croatian: sport, šport
- Czech: sport
- Dutch: sport
- Finnish: urheilulaji, kilpailulaji
- French: sport
- German: Sport
- Hebrew: ספורטאי [sportay], [t+|he|אתלט}} [atlet]
- Hungarian: sport
- Icelandic: íþrótt
- Indonesian: olah raga
- Interlingue: sport
- Italian: sport
- Japanese: 運動 (うんどう, undō)
- Korean: 스포츠 (seupocheu)
- Sorani: وهرزش g Kurdish
- Maltese: sport
- Portuguese: esporte (Brazil), desporto (Portugal)
- Russian: спорт
- Spanish: deporte
- Swedish: sport , idrott
person who exhibits either good or bad sportsmanship
- Finnish: leikkikalu
gaming for money as in racing, hunting, fishing
- Finnish: pelaaminen, uhkapeli
abnormal plant or animal
- Finnish: epämuodostuma
slang: sportsman; gambler
- Finnish: pelimies
- Finnish: teerenpeli
- to amuse oneself, to play
- to mock or tease, treat lightly, toy with
- Jen sports with Bill's emotions.
- to wear (something) with pride
- Jen's sporting a new pair of shoes.
- to bear a mark or wound with embarrassment
Nounsport (plural sporten)
Sport is an activity that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often engaged in competitively. Sports commonly refer to activities where the physical capabilities of the competitor are the sole or primary determiner of the outcome (winning or losing), but the term is also used to include activities such as mind sports (a common name for some card games and board games with little to no element of chance) and motor sports where mental acuity or equipment quality are major factors. Some of the physical sports include association football, basketball, water polo, and baseball.
HistoryThere are artifacts and structures that suggest that the Chinese engaged in sporting activities as early as 4000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills. Among other sports that originate in Persia are polo and jousting.
A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sports in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sports became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.
Industrialization has brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity, as sports fans began following the exploits of professional athletes through radio, television, and the internet--all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with amateur participation in sports.
In the new millennium, new sports have been going further from the physical aspect to the mental or psychological aspect of competing. Cyber sports organizations are becoming more and more popular.
Activities where the outcome is determined by judgement over execution are considered performances, or competition.
SportsmanshipSportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward team mates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in losing.
Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it's “not that you won or lost but how you played the game," and the Modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing . . . is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment.
But often the pressures of competition or an obsession with individual achievement—as well as the intrusion of technology—can all work against enjoyment and fair play by participants.
People responsible for leisure activities often seek recognition and respectability as sports by joining sports federations such as 5 IOC, or by forming their own regulatory body. In this way, new sports evolve from their beginnings as leisure activity to more formal sports: relatively recent newcomers are BMX cycling, snowboarding, and wrestling. Some of these activities have been popular but uncodified pursuits in various forms for different lengths of time. Indeed, the formal regulation of sport is a relatively modern and increasing development.
Sportsmanship, within any given game, is how each competitor acts before, during, and after the competition. Not only is it important to have good sportsmanship if one wins, but also if one loses. For example, in football it is considered sportsmanlike to kick the ball out of play to allow treatment for an injured player on the other side. Reciprocally, the other team is expected to return the ball from the throw-in.
Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism are common and ongoing problems at national and international sporting contests, particularly football matches
ProfessionalismThe entertainment aspect of sports, together with the spread of mass media and increased leisure time, has led to professionalism in sports. This has resulted in some conflict, where the paycheck can be seen as more important than recreational aspects, or where the sports are changed simply to make them more profitable and popular, thereby losing certain valued traditions.
The entertainment aspect also means that sportsmen and women are often elevated to celebrity status.
PoliticsAt times, sports and politics can have a large amount of influence on each other.
When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugby union, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.
The 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin was an illustration, perhaps best recognised in retrospect, where an ideology was developing which used the event to strengthen its spread through propaganda. In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until the mid 20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) if she/he played or supported Football (soccer), or other games seen to be of British origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of soccer and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban is still enforced, but has been modified to allow football and rugby be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road is being redeveloped. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban.
Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sports, or in its reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue (see Football War). These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sports being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.
Physical artSports have many affinities with art. Ice skating and Tai chi, and Dancesport for example, are sports that come close to artistic spectacles in themselves. Similarly, there are other activities that have elements of sport and art in their execution, such as artistic gymnastics, Bodybuilding, Parkour, performance art, professional wrestling, Yoga, bossaball, dressage, culinary arts, marching band, drum corps, etc. Perhaps the best example is Bull-fighting, which in Spain is reported in the arts pages of newspapers. The fact that art is so close to sports in some situations is probably related to the nature of sports. The definition of "sports" above put forward the idea of an activity pursued not just for the usual purposes, for example, running not simply to get places, but running for its own sake, running as well as we can.
This is similar to a common view of aesthetic value, which is seen as something over and above the strictly functional value coming from an object's normal use. So an aesthetically pleasing car is one which doesn't just get from A to B, but which impresses us with its grace, poise, and charisma.
In the same way, a sporting performance such as jumping doesn't just impress us as being an effective way to avoid obstacles or to get across streams. It impresses us because of the ability, skill, and style which is shown.
Art and sports were probably more clearly linked at the time of Ancient Greece, when gymnastics and calisthenics invoked admiration and aesthetic appreciation for the physical build, prowess and 'arete' displayed by participants. The modern term 'art' as skill, is related to this ancient Greek term 'arete'. The closeness of art and sport in these times was revealed by the nature of the Olympic Games which, as we have seen, were celebrations of both sporting and artistic achievements, poetry, sculpture and architecture.
TechnologyTechnology has an important role in sports, whether applied to an athlete's health, the athlete's technique, or equipment's characteristics. Equipment As sports have grown more competitive, the need for better equipment has arose. Golf clubs, football helmets, baseball bats, soccer balls, hockey skates, and other equipment have all seen considerable changes when new technologies have been applied. Health Ranging from nutrition to the treatment of injuries, as the knowledge of the human body has deepened over time, an athlete's potential has been increased. Athletes are now able to play to an older age, recover more quickly from injuries, and train more effectively than previous generations of athletes. Instruction Advancing technology created new opportunities for research into sports. It is now possible to analyse aspects of sports that were previously out of the reach of comprehension. Being able to use motion capture to capture an athlete's movement, or advanced computer simulations to model physical scenarios has greatly increased an athlete's ability to understand what they are doing and how they can improve themselves.
TerminologyIn British English, sporting activities are commonly denoted by the collective noun "sport". In American English, "sports" is more used. In all English dialects, "sports" is the term used for more than one specific sport. For example, "football and swimming are my favourite sports", would sound natural to all English speakers, whereas "I enjoy sport" would sound less natural than "I enjoy sports" to North Americans.
The term "sport" is sometimes extended to encompass all competitive activities, regardless of the level of physical activity. Both games of skill and motor sport exhibit many of the characteristics of physical sports, such as skill, sportsmanship, and at the highest levels, even professional sponsorship associated with physical sports. Air sports, billiards, bridge, chess, motorcycle racing, and powerboating are all recognized as sports by the International Olympic Committee with their world governing bodies represented in the Association of the IOC Recognised International Sports Federations.
As well as being a form of recreation for the participants, much sport is played in front of an audience. Most professional sport is played in a 'theatre' of some kind; be it a stadium, arena, golf course, race track, or the open road, with provision for the (often paying) public. Large television or radio audiences are also commonly attracted, with rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the 'rights' to show certain fixtures. Association football's FIFA World Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions; the 2006 Final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million. In the United States, the championship game of the NFL, the Super Bowl, has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year. Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America; the viewership being so great that in 2007 advertising space was reported as being sold at US$2.6m for a 30 second slot.
- The Meaning of Sports by Michael Mandel (PublicAffairs, ISBN 1-58648-252-1).
- Journal of the Philosophy of Sport
- Free, Marcus; Hughson, John (2006) Common culture, commodity fetishism and the cultural contradictions of sport International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 83-104 DOI: 10.1177/1367877906061166 SAGE Publications
See alsoportal Sports and games sisterlinks Sports* List of basic sports topics
- List of professional sports leagues
- List of sports attendance figures
- List of sports
- List of sportspeople
- Timeline of sports
- Combat Sport
- Disabled sports
- Female sports
- History of sport
- Multi-sport events
- National sport
- Nationalism and sports
- Olympic Games
- Spectator sports
- Sport in film
- Sport governing bodies
- Sports broadcasting
- Sports club
- Sports coaching
- Sports equipment
- Sports injuries
- Sports league attendances
- Sports marketing
- Sports terms named after people
sport in Afrikaans: Sport
sport in Arabic: رياضة
sport in Aragonese: Esporte
sport in Asturian: Deporte
sport in Azerbaijani: İdman
sport in Bambara: Farikoloɲanajɛ
sport in Bengali: ক্রীড়া
sport in Belarusian: Спорт
sport in Bavarian: Sport
sport in Bosnian: Sport
sport in Breton: Sport
sport in Bulgarian: Спорт
sport in Catalan: Esport
sport in Chuvash: Спорт
sport in Czech: Sport
sport in Welsh: Chwaraeon
sport in Danish: Sport
sport in Pennsylvania German: Schparret
sport in German: Sport
sport in Estonian: Sport
sport in Modern Greek (1453-): Αθλητισμός
sport in Spanish: Deporte
sport in Esperanto: Sporto
sport in Basque: Kirol
sport in Persian: ورزش
sport in Faroese: Ítróttur
sport in French: Sport
sport in Western Frisian: Sport
sport in Friulian: Sport
sport in Irish: Spórt
sport in Manx: Spoyrt
sport in Scottish Gaelic: Spòrs
sport in Galician: Deporte
sport in Korean: 스포츠
sport in Armenian: Սպորտ
sport in Croatian: Sport
sport in Ido: Sporto
sport in Indonesian: Olahraga
sport in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Sport
sport in Interlingue: Sport
sport in Icelandic: Íþrótt
sport in Italian: Sport
sport in Hebrew: ספורט
sport in Javanese: Olahraga
sport in Georgian: სპორტი
sport in Kashubian: Szpòrt
sport in Kirghiz: Спорт
sport in Haitian: Espò (divètisman)
sport in Kurdish: Werziş
sport in Ladino: Espor
sport in Lao: ກິລາ
sport in Latin: Ludus athleticus
sport in Latvian: Sports
sport in Luxembourgish: Sport
sport in Lithuanian: Sportas
sport in Limburgan: Sjport
sport in Hungarian: Sport
sport in Macedonian: Спорт
sport in Marathi: खेळ
sport in Malay (macrolanguage): Sukan
sport in Dutch: Sport
sport in Dutch Low Saxon: Sport
sport in Nepali: खेल
sport in Japanese: スポーツ
sport in Neapolitan: Sport
sport in Norwegian: Sport
sport in Norwegian Nynorsk: Idrett
sport in Narom: Sport
sport in Occitan (post 1500): Espòrt
sport in Uzbek: Sport
sport in Papiamento: Deporte
sport in Pushto: ورزښت
sport in Polish: Sport
sport in Portuguese: Desporto
sport in Romanian: Sport
sport in Romansh: Sport
sport in Quechua: Kurku kallpanchay
sport in Russian: Спорт
sport in Sardinian: Isport
sport in Scots: Sport In Scotland
sport in Albanian: Sporti
sport in Sicilian: Sport
sport in Simple English: Sport
sport in Slovak: Šport
sport in Slovenian: Šport
sport in Serbian: Спорт
sport in Serbo-Croatian: Sport
sport in Finnish: Urheilu
sport in Swedish: Sport
sport in Tagalog: Palakasan
sport in Tamil: விளையாட்டு
sport in Kabyle: Addal
sport in Telugu: క్రీడ
sport in Thai: กีฬา
sport in Vietnamese: Thể thao
sport in Tajik: Варзиш
sport in Turkish: Spor
sport in Turkmen: Sport
sport in Ukrainian: Спорт
sport in Venetian: Spor
sport in Võro: Sport
sport in Waray (Philippines): Paugnat-ha-Kusog
sport in Yiddish: ספארט
sport in Zeeuws: Sport
sport in Samogitian: Spuorts
sport in Chinese: 体育
Beau Brummel, Monopoly, Ping-Pong, Rugby, Scrabble, acrobatics, action, adventurer, advertise, affect, agate, agonistics, air, also-ran, amateur athlete, amusement, anomaly, antic, antics, archer, archery, association football, athlete, athletics, avatar, backgammon, badinage, badminton, bagatelle, ball, ballplayer, bandy, banter, baseball, baseball bat, baseballer, baseman, basketball, bat, bathing, batter, battery, battledore, battledore and shuttlecock, bauble, be dressed in, beano, beat, beau, belly laugh, betting ring, bettor, big time, billiards, bingo, blade, blazon forth, blocking back, blocks, blood, blue story, boneshaker, booby, boulevardier, bout, bowling, bowls, bowman, boxing, brandish, butt, call, caper, caracole, cardshark, cardsharp, cardsharper, carry on, cast lots, cat, catabolism, catalysis, catch, catcher, cavort, center, chaff, charades, chase, checkerboard, checkers, chess, chessboard, chevy, chivy, climbing, clotheshorse, club, coach, cockhorse, competitor, 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gambler, gambol, game, game loser, games, games of chance, games-player, gamester, gewgaw, ghost, gimcrack, give-and-take, gliding, go, go hunting, golf, golf club, good loser, good one, good sport, good story, good time, good-natured banter, great fun, guard, gun, gunning, gymnastics, handball, harmless teasing, have on, hawk, hawking, hazarder, heterotopia, hide-and-seek, high jinks, high old time, high time, hiking, hobbyhorse, hockey, hold up, hopscotch, horse around, horseplay, horseshoes, hound, howler, humor, hunt, hunt down, hunting, hurdling, ice hockey, individualist, infielder, inner-directed person, innovation, jack, jack-a-dandy, jack-in-the-box, jackanapes, jacklight, jacks, jackstones, jackstraws, jape, jest, jestbook, jive, jock, joke, jollification, josh, jumper, keno, kickshaw, kidding, kidding around, knickknack, lacrosse, lady-killer, lark, laugh, laughs, lawn tennis, leapfrog, lineman, loser, lot, lotto, lovely time, luging, macaroni, man-about-town, manifest, 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ridicule, riding, riot, rocking horse, roller skating, rollick, romp, rounders, rowing, rugger, run, runoff, sailing, sailplaning, scream, sculling, sharp, sharper, sharpie, shikar, shinny, shoot, shoot craps, shooting, shot-put, show off, shuffleboard, sick joke, sidesplitter, sight gag, singles, skater, skating, skeet, skeet shooting, ski-jumping, skiing, skin-diving, skip, skittles, sledding, snooker, snorkel diving, snowmobiling, soccer, softball, spark, speculate, speculator, sporting, sporting man, sports, sportsman, squash, stalk, stalking, start, steelie, stickball, still hunt, still-hunt, stooge, story, surfing, swell, swimming, table tennis, tackle, tailback, taw, tease, teetotum, tennis, tenpins, tent pegging, tetherball, the vanquished, threesome, ticktacktoe, tiddlywinks, tilting, tinhorn, tipcat, tipster, tivoli, tobogganing, top, toss, tout, toxophilite, toy, toy soldier, track, track and field, trail, transanimation, transfiguration, transfigurement, transformation, transformism, translation, translocation, transmigration, transmogrification, transmutation, transposition, transubstantiation, trapshooting, trinket, trip, trumpet, trumpet forth, tug of war, tumbling, twit, twosome, underdog, vaunt, venery, venturer, victim, visual joke, volleyball, wagerer, water polo, waterskiing, wave, wear, wheeze, whim-wham, wingback, wow, wrestler, wrestling, yarn