AskDefine | Define pharynx

Dictionary Definition

pharynx n : the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone [syn: throat] [also: pharynges (pl)]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

Via from .

Noun

  1. The part of the alimentary canal that extends from the mouth and nasal cavities to the larynx, where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

Translations

part of alimentary canal
  • Chinese (simplified): (yàn)
  • Czech: hltan
  • Danish: svælg
  • Dutch: farynx
  • Finnish: kurkkutorvi
  • French: pharynx
  • German: Pharynx
  • Greek: φάρυγγας
  • Italian: faringe
  • Japanese: 咽頭
  • Korean: 인두 (indu)
  • Latin: pharynx, pharyngis (genitive)
  • Polish: gardło
  • Russian: фаринкс, зев, глотка
  • Spanish: faringe

Extensive Definition

The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to (behind) the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea.

Functions

It is part of the digestive system and respiratory system of many organisms.
Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or aspiration. In humans the pharynx is important in vocalization.

Parts

The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections:

Oropharynx

The oropharynx lies behind the oral cavity. The anterior wall consists of the base of the tongue and the vallecula; the lateral wall is made up of the tonsil, tonsillar fossa, and tonsillar (faucial) pillars; the superior wall consists of the inferior surface of the soft palate and the uvula.

Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx lies behind the nasal cavity.
Postero-superiorly this extends from the level of the junction of the hard and soft palates to the base of skull, laterally to include the fossa of Rosenmuller.
The inferior wall consists of the superior surface of the soft palate.

Laryngopharynx

The laryngopharynx, also known as the hypopharynx, roughly corresponds to the levels between C3 to C6, it includes the pharyngo-esophageal junction (postcricoid area), the piriform sinus, and the posterior pharyngeal wall.
Like the oropharynx above it the hypopharynx serves as a passageway for food and air and is lined with a stratified squamous epithelium.
It lies directly anterior to the upright epiglottis and extends to the larynx, where the respiratory and digestive pathways diverge.
At that point the laryngopharynx is continuous with the esophagus posteriorly. The esophagus conducts food and fluids to the stomach; air enters the larynx anteriorly. During swallowing, food has the "right of way", and air passage temporarily stops.

Additional images...

Image:Illu conducting passages.jpg|Conducting passages. Image:Illu dige tract.jpg|Organs of the digestive system.

References

  • Human Anatomy and Physiology Elaine N. Marieb and Katja Hoehn, Seventh Edition.
  • TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours Sobin LH & Wittekind Ch (eds)Sixth edition UICC 2002 ISBN 0-471-22288-7

External links

pharynx in Arabic: بلعوم
pharynx in Bulgarian: Гълтач
pharynx in Catalan: Faringe
pharynx in Czech: Hltan
pharynx in German: Pharynx
pharynx in Dhivehi: އަރުތެރެ
pharynx in Modern Greek (1453-): Φάρυγγας
pharynx in Spanish: Faringe
pharynx in Esperanto: Faringo
pharynx in Basque: Faringe
pharynx in French: Pharynx
pharynx in Galician: Farinxe
pharynx in Korean: 인두 (몸)
pharynx in Indonesian: Faring
pharynx in Icelandic: Kok
pharynx in Italian: Faringe
pharynx in Hebrew: לוע
pharynx in Javanese: Faring
pharynx in Latin: Pharynx
pharynx in Lithuanian: Ryklė
pharynx in Lingala: Mongelu
pharynx in Macedonian: Голтник
pharynx in Dutch: Pharynx
pharynx in Japanese: 咽頭
pharynx in Polish: Gardło
pharynx in Portuguese: Faringe
pharynx in Romanian: Faringe
pharynx in Russian: Глотка
pharynx in Simple English: Pharynx
pharynx in Slovak: Hltan
pharynx in Serbian: Ждрело
pharynx in Serbo-Croatian: Ždrelo
pharynx in Finnish: Nielu
pharynx in Swedish: Svalg
pharynx in Thai: คอหอย
pharynx in Ukrainian: Пелька
pharynx in Yiddish: פארינקס

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

alveolar ridge, alveolus, apex, arytenoid cartilages, back, blade, dorsum, esophagus, fauces, goozle, gorge, gullet, guzzle, hals, hard palate, larynx, lips, nasal cavity, oral cavity, palate, pharyngeal cavity, soft palate, speech organ, syrinx, teeth, teeth ridge, throat, tip, tongue, velum, vocal chink, vocal cords, vocal folds, vocal processes, voice box, weasand, wizen
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