process of raising and educating a child from birth until adulthood
- Finnish: kasvatus
- present participle of parent
In the case of humans, it is usually done by the biological parents of the child in question , although governments and society take a role as well. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations. Others may be adopted, raised by foster care, or be placed in an orphanage.
The goals of human parenting are debated. Usually, parental figures provide for a child's physical needs, protect them from harm, and impart in them skills and cultural values until they reach legal adulthood, usually after adolescence. Among non-human species, parenting is usually less lengthy and complicated, though mammals tend to nurture their young extensively. The degree of attention parents invest in their offspring is largely inversely proportional to the number of offspring the average adult in the species produces.
Parental dutiesThere is general consensus around parents providing the basic necessities, with increasing interest in children's rights within the home environment.
Providing physical securityProviding physical security refers to a safety of a child's body, safety of a child's life.
Providing physical developmentDeveloping a child physically refers to providing a conditions to a healthy growth of a child.
Providing intellectual securityIntellectual security refers to the conditions, in which a child's mind can develop. If the child's dignity is safe, that is nobody encroaches upon a child physically or verbally, then he is able to learn.
Providing intellectual developmentIntellectual development means providing opportunity to a child to learn - to learn about laws of nature and moral laws.
Providing emotional securityTo provide security to a child is to help protect and shield the child's fragile psyche. It is to provide a safe loving environment, give a child a sense of being loved, being needed, welcomed.
Providing emotional developmentdevelopment refers to giving a child an opportunity to love other people, to care, to help.
Other parental duties
Parenting models, tools, philosophies and practices
Conventional models of parenting
- "Rules of traffic" models
- "Fine gardening" model
"The models “rules of traffic” and “fine gardening” are especially dangerous because we, following our best motives, constantly quarrel with our children, destroy relationships, and all our parental work becomes a hopeless effort. Moreover, we don’t understand why this has happened." S.Soloveychik,
- "Reward and punishment" model
Modern models of parentingParenting typically utilizes tools of reward and punishment method, but most child development experts now agree that corporal punishment is not an effective behavior modification tool. In some jurisdictions corporal punishment (e.g., spanking or whipping) has been prohibited by law. Many parents have adopted non-physical approaches to child discipline, for example time-out. The other "civilized" forms of discipline behavioral control, structure, accountability, Parental supervision, etc.
- Examples of modern parenting models
bonds, avoiding physical punishment and accomplishing discipline through interactions recognizing a child's emotional needs all while focusing on holistic understanding of the child.
manipulative and harmful to children and advocates other methods to reach agreement with them.
philosophy of Parenting For Everyone considers parenting from the ethical point of view. It analyses parenting goals, conditions and means of childrearing. It offers to look at a child's internal world (emotions, intelligence and spirit) and derive the sources of parenting success from there. The concept of heart implies the child's sense of being loved and their ability to love others. The concept of intelligence implies the child's morals. And the concept of spirit implies the child's desire to do good actions and avoid bad behavior, avoid encroaching upon anybody's dignity. The core concept of the philosophy of Parenting For Everyone is the concept of dignity, the child's sense of worthiness and justice.
Christian parentingIn the United States, disparate models explicitly termed "Christian parenting" are popular among some parents who claim to apply biblical principles to parenting. Information on Christian parenting is found in publications, Christian parenting websites, and in seminars devoted to helping parents apply Christian principles to parenting.
While some Christian parenting models are strict and authoritarian, others are "grace-based" and share methods advocated in attachment parenting and positive parenting theories. Particularly influential on opposite sides have been James Dobson and his book Dare to Discipline, and William Sears who has written several parenting books including The Complete Book of Christian Parenting & Child Care and The Discipline Book.
In a study of Christian parents done by Christian Parenting Today in 2000, 39% of the families surveyed have family devotions once a week or more, and 69% of parents consider Sunday school, youth and children's programs extremely important.
Parenting issues across the child's lifespan
Planning and Pre-pregnancyFamily planning decisions about whether and when to become parents, planning, preparing, gathering resources. Reproductive health and preconceptional care affect pregnancy, reproductive success and maternal and child health.
Pregnancy and prenatal parentingDuring pregnancy the unborn child is affected by many decisions his or her parents make, particularly choices linked to their lifestyle. The health and diet decisions of the mother can have either a positive or negative impact on the child during prenatal parenting.
Many people believe that parenting begins with birth, but the mother begins raising and nurturing a child well before birth. Scientific evidence indicates that from the fifth month on, the unborn baby is able to hear sound, be aware of motion, and possibly exhibit short-term memory. Several studies (e.g. Kissilevsky et al., 2003) show evidence that the unborn baby can become familiar with his or her parents' voices. Other research indicates that by the seventh month, external schedule cues influence the unborn baby's sleep habits. Based on this evidence, parenting actually begins well before birth.
Depending on how many children the mother carries also determines the amount of care needed during prenatal and post-natal periods.
InfantsBeing the parent of an infant is a major responsibility. Infants require dedicated care, including (but not limited to) feeding, bathing, changing diapers, and health care. Because of this, you would be wise to be committed to this child's well-being, since the rest of your life will have to be centered around it.
ToddlersParenting a toddler requires time and hard work. Parenting responsibilities during the toddler years include (but are not limited to) feeding, bathing, potty training, ensuring safety, teaching, and attending to the well-being of the child. Parenting toddlers also requires emotionally sound parents and guardians. Toddlers are basically older infants and require the same if not more patience.
PreschoolersParents are expected to make important decisions about preschool education and early childhood education. Parents have to love and care for their preschoolers doing all that they can to keep them safe. It is important not to keep things laying around that is dangerous to small children and items that say keep out of reach of children. Children at this age are very likely to put things in their mouths and eat and drink things that are dangerous to their health.
Elementary and Middle School YearsParenting issues related to parenting school age children include Education, Kindergarten, Primary education. Parents must also gear them for the school years to come, which require emotional toughness.
AdolescentsDuring adolescence children are beginning to form their identity and are testing and developing the interpersonal and occupational roles that they will assume as adults. Although adolescents look to peers and adults outside of the family for guidance and models for how to behave, parents remain influential in their development. Parents should make efforts to be aware of their adolescents activities, provide guidance, direction, and consultation. Adolescence can be a time of high risk for children, where newfound freedoms can result in decisions that drastically open up or close off life opportunities. Parental issues at this stage of parenting include dealing with "rebellious" teenagers, who didn't know freedom while they were smaller.
Young AdultsWhen grown-up children become adults their personalities show the result of successful or unsuccessful parenting. Especially it is noticeable when young adults make their independent life decisions about their education, work and choosing mates for friendship or marriage.
Adults and Older AdultsParenting doesn't stop when children grow up and age. Parents always remain to be parents for old children. Their relationship continues developing if both parties want to keep it or improve. The parenting issues may include the relationship with grandchildren and children-in-law.
- Main Article: Parenting styles
There are four universal parenting styles, each with different methods of parenting. Each parenting style has different levels of demand and responsiveness and the resulting child is different for each style.
AssistanceParents may receive assistance from a variety of individuals and organizations. Employers may offer specific benefits or programs for parents. Many governments provide assistance to parents.
Another source of Assistance is other parents. Using the advice of other parents is sometimes the best advice due to the fact that some have lived through exactly what you are experiencing.
AdvocacySome organizations advocating more parental rights in the United States:
- Benjamin Spock, was an authority on parenting to a generation of North American parents.
- T. Berry Brazelton, the founder of the Child Development Unit at Children's Hospital, Boston, and Professor of Pediatrics Emeritus at Harvard Medical School.
- Jesper Juul is a Danish family therapist and author and a renowned international authority on the family.
- Affectional bond
- Child development
- Child discipline
- Empty nest syndrome
- List of child related articles
- Maternal bond and paternal bond
- Motherhood Constellation
- Parental alienation
- Parental leave
- Parenting and child guidance classes and authors
- Parenting practices
- Parenting styles
- Pedagogy (such as Montessori's 'scientific pedagogy')
- Shared parenting
- Single parent
- Family in society : essential primary sources.
- Your Competent Child - Towards New Basic Values for the Family
- The Positive Parent: Raising Heatlhy, Happy and Successful Children from Birth through Adolescence
- Free Download - Child Monitoring Software To Alert you of Dangerous Situations
- Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
- National Effective Parenting Initiative
- Center for The Improvement of Child Caring
- One Plus One
- Prevent Delinquency Project
- Resource network for adoptive parents and their children
- Current articles, discussions and tips on raising children
- Articles on pregnancy, birth, parenting
parenting in Czech: Rodičovství
parenting in Danish: Forælder
parenting in German: Erziehung
parenting in Hebrew: הורות
parenting in Japanese: 子育て
parenting in Norwegian Nynorsk: barneoppseding
parenting in Polish: Rodzice
parenting in Russian: Родительская любовь
parenting in Finnish: Kasvatus
parenting in Swedish: Barnuppfostran