pancreas n : a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
EtymologyExisting in English since the sixteenth century: from pancreas, from italbrac pankreas, from , “pan-, all-” + italbrac kreas, “flesh”.
- A gland near the stomach which secretes a fluid to help with food digestion and also the hormone insulin which helps the body process glucose (or sugars).
See alsorel-top See also
gland near the stomach
- Mandarin: 胰腺
- Czech: slinivka břišní
- Danish: bugspytkirtel
- Dutch: alvleesklier, buikspeekselklier, pancreas
- Finnish: haima
- French: pancréas
- German: Bauchspeicheldrüse , Pankreas
- Greek: πάγκρεας
- Interlingua: pancreas
- Italian: pancreas
- Norwegian: bukspyttkjertel
- Polish: trzustka
- Russian: поджелудочная железа
- Spanish: páncreas
- Swedish: bukspottkörtel
- Turkish: pankreas
The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). It also produces digestive enzymes that pass into the small intestine. These enzymes help in the further breakdown of the carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme.
HistologyUnder a microscope, stained sections of the pancreas reveal two different types of parenchymal tissue. Lightly staining clusters of cells are called islets of Langerhans, which produce hormones that underlie the endocrine functions of the pancreas. Darker staining cells form acini connected to ducts. Acinar cells belong to the exocrine pancreas and secrete digestive enzymes into the gut via a system of ducts.
FunctionThe pancreas is a dual-function gland, having features of both endocrine and exocrine glands.
The part of the pancreas with endocrine function is made up of a million cell clusters called islets of Langerhans. There are four main cell types in the islets. They are relatively difficult to distinguish using standard staining techniques, but they can be classified by their secretion: α cells secrete glucagon, β cells secrete insulin, δ cells secrete somatostatin, and PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The islets are a compact collection of endocrine cells arranged in clusters and cords and are crisscrossed by a dense network of capillaries. The capillaries of the islets are lined by layers of endocrine cells in direct contact with vessels, and most endocrine cells are in direct contact with blood vessels, by either cytoplasmic processes or by direct apposition. According to the volume The Body, by Alan E. Nourse, the islets are "busily manufacturing their hormone and generally disregarding the pancreatic cells all around them, as though they were located in some completely different part of the body."
In contrast to the endocrine pancreas, which secretes hormones into the blood, the exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes and an alkaline fluid, and secretes them into the small intestine through a system of exocrine ducts. Digestive enzymes include trypsin, chymotrypsin, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic amylase, and are produced and secreted by acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. Specific cells that line the pancreatic ducts, called centroacinar cells, secrete a bicarbonate- and salt-rich solution into the small intestine.
RegulationThe pancreas receives regulatory innervation via hormones in the blood and through the autonomic nervous system. These two inputs regulate the secretory activity of the pancreas.
Diseases of the pancreasBecause the pancreas is a storage depot for digestive enzymes, injury to the pancreas is potentially very dangerous. A puncture of the pancreas generally requires prompt and experienced medical intervention.
HistoryThe pancreas was first identified by Herophilus (335-280 BC), a Greek anatomist and surgeon. Only a few hundred years later, Ruphos, another Greek anatomist, gave the pancreas its name. The term "pancreas" is derived from the Greek pan, "all", and kreas, "flesh", probably referring to the organ's homogeneous appearance.
Embryological developmentThe pancreas forms from the embryonic foregut and is therefore of endodermal origin. Pancreatic development begins the formation of a ventral and dorsal anlage (or buds). Each structure communicates with the foregut through a duct.
Differential rotation and fusion of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds results in the formation of the definitive pancreas. As the duodenum rotates to the right, it carries with it the ventral pancreatic bud and common bile duct. Upon reaching its final destination, the ventral pancreatic bud fuses with the much larger dorsal pancreatic bud. At this point of fusion, the main ducts of the ventral and dorsal pancreatic buds fuse, forming the duct of Wirsung, the main pancreatic duct.
Differentiation of cells of the pancreas proceeds through two different pathways, corresponding to the dual endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas. In progenitor cells of the exocrine pancreas, important molecules that induce differentiation include follistatin, fibroblast growth factors, and activation of the Notch receptor system. Development of the exocrine acini progresses through three successive stages. These include the predifferentiated, protodifferentiated, and differentiated stages, which correspond to undetectable, low, and high levels of digestive enzyme activity, respectively.
Progenitor cells of the endocrine pancreas arise from cells of the protodifferentiated stage of the exocrine pancreas. Under the influence of neurogenin-3 and Isl-1, but in the absence of Notch receptor signaling, these cells differentiate to form two lines of committed endocrine precursor cells. The first line, under the direction of Pax-6, forms α- and γ- cells, which produce the peptides glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. The second line, influenced by Pax-4, produces β- and δ-cells, which secrete insulin and somatostatin, respectively.
Insulin and glucagon can be detected in the fetal circulation by the fourth of fifth month of fetal development.
Image:Digestive system showing bile duct.png|Accessory digestive system. Image:BauchOrgane wn.png|Digestive organs.
pancreas in Afrikaans: Pankreas
pancreas in Arabic: بنكرياس
pancreas in Bengali: অগ্ন্যাশয়
pancreas in Bosnian: Gušterača
pancreas in Bulgarian: Панкреас
pancreas in Catalan: Pàncrees
pancreas in Czech: Slinivka břišní člověka
pancreas in Danish: Bugspytkirtlen
pancreas in German: Bauchspeicheldrüse
pancreas in Spanish: Páncreas
pancreas in Esperanto: Pankreato
pancreas in Basque: Pankrea
pancreas in French: Pancréas
pancreas in Galician: Páncreas
pancreas in Korean: 이자 (기관)
pancreas in Croatian: Gušterača
pancreas in Indonesian: Pankreas
pancreas in Italian: Pancreas
pancreas in Hebrew: לבלב
pancreas in Javanese: Pankreas
pancreas in Kurdish: Pankreas
pancreas in Latin: Pancreas
pancreas in Lithuanian: Kasa
pancreas in Hungarian: Hasnyálmirigy
pancreas in Macedonian: Панкреас
pancreas in Dutch: Alvleesklier
pancreas in Japanese: 膵臓
pancreas in Norwegian: Bukspyttkjertelen
pancreas in Norwegian Nynorsk: Bukspyttkjertelen
pancreas in Polish: Trzustka
pancreas in Portuguese: Pâncreas
pancreas in Romanian: Pancreas
pancreas in Quechua: Suyk'upin
pancreas in Russian: Поджелудочная железа
pancreas in Albanian: Pankreasi
pancreas in Simple English: Pancreas
pancreas in Slovak: Podžalúdková žľaza
pancreas in Slovenian: Trebušna slinavka
pancreas in Serbian: Гуштерача
pancreas in Finnish: Haima
pancreas in Swedish: Bukspottkörtel
pancreas in Tamil: கணையம்
pancreas in Vietnamese: Tụy
pancreas in Turkish: Pankreas
pancreas in Ukrainian: Підшлункова залоза
pancreas in Yiddish: קישקע
pancreas in Chinese: 胰脏