# Dictionary Definition

minus adj

1 on the negative side or lower end of a scale;
"minus 5 degrees"; "a grade of B minus" [ant: plus]

2 involving disadvantage or harm; "minus (or
negative) factors" [syn: negative] n : an arithmetic
operation in which the difference between two numbers is
calculated; "the subtraction of three from four leaves one"; "four
minus three equals one" [syn: subtraction]

# User Contributed Dictionary

## English

### Pronunciation

- , /ˈmaɪnəs/, /"maIn@s/

### Preposition

minus- less; reduced by subtraction
- seven minus two is five

- without.
- I walked out minus my coat.

#### Translations

mathematics: less

- Dutch: min
- Finnish: miinus
- French: moins
- German: minus
- Greek: μείον (míon), πλην (plin)
- Icelandic: mínus
- Italian: meno
- Norwegian: minus
- Portuguese: menos
- Russian: минус
- Spanish: menos
- Swedish: minus
- Urdu:

informal: without

- See without

### Adjective

#### Translations

negative

- Dutch: min, negatief, negatieve
- Finnish: negatiivinen
- French: négatif, négative
- Greek: αρνητικός, αρνητική, αρνητικό
- Icelandic: mínus- , sem lýtur að frádrætti, frádráttar-; neikvæður , neikvæð , neikvætt ; minni en núll m|f, minna en núll
- Italian: negativo, negativa
- Norwegian: negativ
- Portuguese: negativo
- Russian: отрицательный (otricátel’nyj)
- Swedish: negativ

on the negative part of a scale

- Dutch: min, onder nul (after the noun)
- Finnish: miinus; (x astetta) pakkasta - (x degrees) frost
- French: moins
- Greek: μείον, πλην
- Icelandic: mínus ; neikvæður , neikvæð , neikvætt ; minni en núll m|f, minna en núll
- Russian: минус
- Swedish: minus

ranking just below a designated rating

### Noun

- A minus sign (−).
- A negative quantity.
- A defect or deficiency.

#### Synonyms

- (defect or deficiency): defect, deficiency, drawback, flaw, shortcoming

#### Antonyms

#### Translations

mathematics: minus sign

- See minus sign

mathematics: negative quantity

- German: Minus
- Icelandic: neikvæð tala , tala sem er minni en núll
- Japanese: (, fu), (mainasu)
- Portuguese: negativo
- Russian: отрицательная величина (otricátel’naja veličiná)
- Swedish: negativ kvantitet

defect or deficiency

### See also

## Crimean Tatar

### Etymology

minus - less.### Noun

minus#### Declension

### References

Useinov-Mireev 2002}}## Swedish

### Verb

minus# Extensive Definition

The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are
mathematical
symbols used to represent the notions of
positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction. Their use has
been extended to many other meanings, more or less analogous. Plus
and minus are Latin terms meaning
"more" and "less", respectively. <div style="float:right;
margin: 0 0 10px 10px; padding:40px; font-size:500%; font-family:
Georgia; background-color: #ddddff; border: 1px solid
#aaaaff;">+ −

## History

Though the signs now seem as familiar as the
alphabet or the
Hindu-Arabic numerals, they are not of great antiquity. The
Egyptian
hieroglyphic sign for addition, for example, resembled a pair
of legs walking in the direction in which the text was written
(Egyptian
was written in boustrophedon, or
alternating directions), with the reverse sign indicating
subtraction: In Europe in the early 15th century
the letters P and M were generally used.

The earliest print appearance of the modern signs
seems to come from a book on Behende und hüpsche Rechenung auff
allen Kauffmanschafft or Mercantile Arithmetic by Johannes
Widmann in 1489, used to indicate
surpluses and deficits. The + is a simplification of the Latin "et"
(comparable to the ampersand &). The
− may be derived from a tilde written over m when used to
indicate subtraction; or it may come from a shorthand version of
the letter m itself. Widmann referred to the symbols − and + as
minus and mer: "was − ist, das ist minus, und das + ist das
mer".

According to the Earliest Uses of
Various Mathematical Symbols website, a book published by
Henricus
Grammateus in 1518 is the earliest
found to use + and − for addition and subtraction.

Robert
Recorde, the designer of the equals sign,
introduced plus and minus to the UK in 1557 in The Whetstone
of Witte:

## Plus sign

The plus sign is a binary
operator that indicates addition, as in 2 + 3 = 5. It
can also serve as a unary
operator that leaves its operand unchanged (+5 means the
same as 5). This notation may be used when it is desired to
emphasise the positiveness of a number, especially when contrasting
with the negative (+5 versus −5).

The plus sign can also indicate many other
operations, depending on the mathematical system under
consideration. Many algebraic
structures have some operation which is called, or equivalent
to, addition. Moreover,
the symbolism has been extended to very different operations. Plus
can mean:

- exclusive or (usually written ⊕): 1 + 1 = 0, 1 + 0 = 1
- logical disjunction (usually written ∨): 1 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1
- concatenation of strings is sometimes written: "a" + "b" = "ab", although this usage is questioned by some for violating commutativity, a property addition is expected to have.

In grading systems (such as examination marks),
the plus sign indicates a grade one level higher; for example, B+
("B plus") is one grade higher than B. Sometimes this is extended
to two plus signs; for example B++ is one grade higher than
B+.

In C
and some other computer programming languages, two plus signs
indicate the increment
operator; for example, x++ means "increment the value of x by one".
By extension, "++" is sometimes used in computing terminology to
signify an improvement, as in the name of the language C++.

Plus and minus signs are often used in tree view on a
computer screen to show if a folder is collapsed or not.

### Alternative plus sign

<div style="float:right; margin: 0 0 10px 10px; padding:40px; font-size:100%; font-family: Georgia; background-color: #ddddff; border: 1px solid #aaaaff;">A Jewish tradition that dated from at least from the 19th century was to write plus using a symbol like an inverted T. This practice was then adopted into Israeli schools (this practice goes back to at least the 1940s) and is still commonplace today in some elementary schools (including secular schools) while fewer secondary schools.. It is also used occasionally in books by religious authors, but most books for adults use the international symbol "+". The usual explanation for the origins of this practice is that it avoided the writing of a symbol "+" that looked like a Christian cross## Minus sign

The minus sign has two uses in mathematics:

- The subtraction operator: A binary operator to indicate the operation of subtraction, as in 5 − 3 = 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.
- A unary operator that acts as an instruction to replace the operand by its negative (or "opposite"). When applied to a positive number, unary minus creates a negative number. For example, −5 is the negative of 5, and −10.4 is the negative of 10.4. When applied to a negative number unary minus creates a positive number (the opposite of a negative is a positive). For example, if x is 3, then −x is −3, but if x is −3, then −x is 3. Similarly, −(−2) is equal to 2. When applied to zero the result is zero (−0 = 0).

Technically, only the first use should be read
minus, where as the number −5 should be read "negative 5"
and the symbol −x should be read "the opposite of x".
However, informally, "minus 5" and "minus x" are often heard.

In some contexts, different glyphs are used for
these meanings; e.g., the unary operator may be raised (as in 2 − 5
= −3), but this usage is rare.

In grading systems (such as examination marks),
the minus sign indicates a grade one level lower; for example,
B− ("B minus") is one grade lower than B. Sometimes this
is extended to two minus signs; for example B−−
is one grade lower than B−.

In most programming languages, subtraction and
negation are indicated with the ASCII hyphen-minus
character -. In C
and some other computer programming languages, two hyphen-minus
signs indicate the decrement operator; for
example, x-- means "decrement the value of x by one".

## Character codes

The Unicode minus sign is designed to be the same length and height as the plus and equals signs. In most fonts these are the same width as digits in order to facilitate the alignment of numbers in tables.The hyphen-minus sign (-) is the ASCII version of the
minus sign, and doubles as a hyphen. It is usually shorter in
length than the plus sign and sometimes at a different height. It
can be used as a substitute for the true minus sign when the
character set is limited to ASCII.

## See also

- Plus-minus sign
- Table of mathematical symbols
- List of international call prefixes that + can represent the numbers required to dial out of a country as seen in a phone number
- Graft-chimaera for the meaning of + in botanical names
- Dash

## References

## External links

minus in Arabic: عيب (هندسة)

minus in Czech: Znaménka plus a minus

minus in German: Minus

minus in Spanish: Signos más y menos

minus in French: Signes plus et moins

minus in Korean: 부호 (수학)

minus in Italian: Più

minus in Italian: Meno (matematica)

minus in Dutch: Minteken

minus in Japanese: プラス記号とマイナス記号

minus in Polish: Plus i minus

minus in Russian: Минус

minus in Slovak: Mínus

minus in Finnish: Etumerkki

minus in Swedish: Plustecken

minus in Turkish: Eksi

minus in Yiddish: פלאס און מיינוס
צייכענעס

# Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

barring, bereaved, bereaved of, bereft, cut off, decrement, deduction, deficient, denuded, deprived of, devoid, discounting, divested, except, excepting, exception taken of,
excluding, exclusive
of, existless,
from, inadequate, inferior, insufficient, lacking, leaving out, less, minuend, missing, negative, nonexistent, not counting,
null, off, out of, parted from, plus, positive, robbed of, sans, save, shorn of, short, short of, stripped of,
subtrahend, unexisting, unreached, vacuous, void, wanting, without, without
being