Foulness is an island on the east coast of Essex in England. It is separated from the mainland by narrow creeks. The large island had a usually resident population of 212 people in the 2001 census, who live in the settlements of Churchend and Courtsend, at the north end of Foulness. The island has a church, a pub (The George and the Dragon), a general store and post office.
It is mostly marshland, although some areas are farmed. It is also known for its population of waders, including Avocets.
The island is run by QinetiQ on behalf of the Ministry of Defence. Access to the island is only permitted with a pass, obtainable from Shoeburyness, or by booking a lunch at the pub (01702 219460). Since 1926, it has been connected to the mainland by a series of bridges, running via Havengore Island and New England Island. Prior to that, access was only available across the Maplin Sands.
The island featured in Bernard Cornwell's novel Sharpe's Regiment as the camp ground for the second battalion of the Regiment of South Essex.