1 (of light rays) subjected to scattering by reflection from a rough surface or transmission through a translucent material; "diffused light"
2 (of light) not bright or glaring; "a softer diffused radiance" [syn: softened]
In physics, chemistry and biology, diffusion denotes the mixing of two or more substances or the net motion of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The theory is that both of these result from the random motion of micro-scale individual agents (such as molecules) giving rise to net changes on the macro-scale. While originally formulated within the framework of the physical sciences, the concept of diffusion has been applied to phenomena such as the manner in which information is spread amongst a population. The chemistry definition of diffusion is the movement of a fluid from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Diffusion is an abstract topic and is often only explained as theoretical model. It is part of transport phenomena in general, and often accompanied by the much quicker convection (making it hard to observe 'pure' diffusion). A few examples are shown below.
The diffusion equationTo verify any microscopic model we may think up, we need to calculate its consequences and compare these to observation. Another way of arriving at a microscopic model is to write down a general equation and solve it mathematically (i.e. start from what you already know). This general equation, not refering to any microscopic model, is the diffusion equation
\partial_t c (\mathbf,t) = D\nabla^2 c(\mathbf,t).
This equation is composed out of two true statements. One of these is the continuity equation
\partial_t c(\mathbf , t) = - \mathbf \cdot \mathbf(\mathbf , t).
And the other Fick's law
\mathbf (\mathbf , t) = - D \mathbf c (\mathbf, t),
where \mathbf (\mathbf , t) is the flux, D is the diffusion constant, and c (\mathbf, t) is the concentration of diffusing material.
The continuity equation is the mathematical equivalent to a piggybank. Your savings increase by the amount that you put in, they decrease by the amount you take out, no more and no less. Fick's law, on the other hand, was born as an empirical law which means that it describes observations and is not derived from any argument.
One general solution to the diffusion equation is a Gaussian one. This suggest an uncorrelated random walk as a microscopic model, completely in line with Robert Brown's observations.
Einstein relationEinstein showed that Fick's law (empirical) can be derived by writing the flux in terms of the chemical potential, and taking this potential to be that of an ideal gas. This last step is valid for not-too-dense concentrations of particles in general (in a gas, but in a liquid as well). The result is
\mathbf (\mathbf , t) = - \frac\mathbf c (\mathbf, t),
where \gamma is the drag coefficient (the inverse of the mobility). The Einstein relation follows directly to be
D = \frac,
which is the most general expression for the diffusion coefficient, not refering to any microscopic model.
Entropy and diffusion
- Brownian motion, for example of a single particle in a solvent
- Collective diffusion, the diffusion of a large number of (possibly interacting) particles
- Ellusion of a gas through small holes.
- Electronic diffusion, resulting in electric current
- Facilitated diffusion, present in some organisms.
- Gaseous diffusion, used for isotope separation
- Heat flow
- Itō diffusion
- Knudsen diffusion
- Momentum diffusion, ex. the diffusion of the hydrodynamic velocity field
- Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a cell membrane.
- Photon diffusion
- Reverse diffusion
- Rotational diffusion
- Surface diffusion
- Active transport, pumping material across a cell membrane
- Pinocytosis, "cell drinking" intake of small droplets of lipids
- Phagocytosis, carrier proteins are used to transport glucose
Metabolism and respiration rely in part upon diffusion in addition to bulk or active processes. For example, in the alveoli of mammalian lungs, due to differences in partial pressures across the alveolar-capillary membrane, oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses out. Lungs contain a large surface area to facilitate this gas exchange process.
An experiment to demonstrate diffusion
Diffusion is easy to observe, but care must be taken to avoid a mixture of diffusion and other transport phenomena.
It can be demonstrated with a wide glass tubed paper, two corks, some cotton wool soaked in ammonia solution and some red litmus paper. By corking the two ends of the wide glass tube and plugging the wet cotton wool with one of the corks, and litmus paper can be hung with a thread within the tube. It will be observed that the red litmus papers turn blue.
This is because the ammonia molecules travel by diffusion from the higher concentration in the cotton wool to the lower concentration in the rest of the glass tube. As the ammonia solution is alkaline, the red litmus papers turn blue. By changing the concentration of ammonia, the rate of color change of the litmus papers can be changed.
- Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement
diffused in Catalan: Difusió
diffused in Czech: Difuze
diffused in Danish: Diffusion
diffused in German: Diffusion
diffused in Modern Greek (1453-): Διάχυση
diffused in Spanish: Difusión
diffused in Persian: نفوذ (فیزیک)
diffused in French: Diffusion de la matière
diffused in Indonesian: Difusi
diffused in Hebrew: פעפוע
diffused in Lithuanian: Difuzija
diffused in Macedonian: Дифузија
diffused in Dutch: Diffusie
diffused in Japanese: 拡散
diffused in Norwegian: Diffusjon
diffused in Norwegian Nynorsk: Diffusjon
diffused in Polish: Dyfuzja
diffused in Portuguese: Difusão molecular
diffused in Russian: Диффузия
diffused in Slovak: Difúzia (fyzika)
diffused in Slovenian: Difuzija
diffused in Serbian: Дифузија
diffused in Serbo-Croatian: Difuzija
diffused in Finnish: Diffuusio
diffused in Swedish: Diffusion
diffused in Turkish: Difüzyon
diffused in Ukrainian: Дифузія
diffused in Chinese: 扩散